Using Kerberos in Oracle Standard Edition

Since the release of Oracle 12cR1 mid 2013 the network encryption and strong authentication services has been removed from the Oracle Advanced Security Option. Both feature are now available for any licensed editions. Corresponding section in the Oracle Licensing Guide for 11g R2 and 12c R1 has been updated.

Network encryption (native network encryption and SSL/TLS) and strong authentication services (Kerberos, PKI, and RADIUS) are no longer part of Oracle Advanced Security and are available in all licensed editions of all supported releases of the Oracle database.

Oracle Network Encryption does work quite well for Standard or Enterprise Edition even with the Instant Client. But there is no Kerberos support available Oracle 11.2.0.4 Standard Edition or any other 11g SE release. This can be verified on the command line with the command adapters:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/ [TDB11B] adapters

Installed Oracle Net transport protocols are:

    IPC
    BEQ
    TCP/IP
    SSL
    RAW
    SDP/IB

Installed Oracle Net naming methods are:

    Local Naming (tnsnames.ora)
    Oracle Directory Naming
    Oracle Host Naming
    Oracle Names Server Naming

Installed Oracle Advanced Security options are:

    RC4 40-bit encryption
    RC4 56-bit encryption
    RC4 128-bit encryption
    RC4 256-bit encryption
    DES40 40-bit encryption
    DES 56-bit encryption
    3DES 112-bit encryption
    3DES 168-bit encryption
    AES 128-bit encryption
    AES 192-bit encryption
    AES 256-bit encryption
    MD5 crypto-checksumming
    SHA-1 crypto-checksumming

There is a MOS Note 2145731.1 which describes how to enable the Radius adapter. The same method can be used to enable Kerberos as well, event if an other MOS Note 2028070.1 specifies that Kerberos is not available in Standard Edition.

Radius and Kerberos adapters is part of the object file nautab.o. In $ORACLE_HOME/lib are two object files. nautab.o and the nautab_ee.o.dbl:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] ls -al $ORACLE_HOME/lib/naut*
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul 15  2013 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4520 Jul  1 18:01 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab.o

To get Kerberos support you just have to replace the nautab.o with nautab_ee.o.dbl…:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] cp $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab.o $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab_se.o.dbl
oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] cp $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab.o

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] ls -al $ORACLE_HOME/lib/naut*
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul 15  2013 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul  1 19:54 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab.o
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4520 Jul  1 19:54 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_se.o.dbl

… and relink the binaries:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] relink all
writing relink log to: /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/install/relink.log

As you can see the command adapters now shows Radius and Kerberos adapters:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] adapters

Installed Oracle Net transport protocols are:

    IPC
    BEQ
    TCP/IP
    SSL
    RAW
    SDP/IB

Installed Oracle Net naming methods are:

    Local Naming (tnsnames.ora)
    Oracle Directory Naming
    Oracle Host Naming
    Oracle Names Server Naming

Installed Oracle Advanced Security options are:

    RC4 40-bit encryption
    RC4 56-bit encryption
    RC4 128-bit encryption
    RC4 256-bit encryption
    DES40 40-bit encryption
    DES 56-bit encryption
    3DES 112-bit encryption
    3DES 168-bit encryption
    AES 128-bit encryption
    AES 192-bit encryption
    AES 256-bit encryption
    MD5 crypto-checksumming
    SHA-1 crypto-checksumming
    Kerberos v5 authentication
    RADIUS authentication

As of now kerberos can be configured and used as usual. If for a reason okinit and oklist are also required, they must be copied from an existing Oracle 11g Enterprise Edition installation. By default they are not part of a Standard Edition. So let’s copy the binaries and the corresponding message files:

] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okinit 11.2.0.4se/bin/okinit
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/oklist 11.2.0.4se/bin/oklist
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okinit 11.2.0.4se/bin/okinit
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okdstry 11.2.0.4se/bin/okdstry
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/network/mesg/naukus.msb 11.2.0.4se/network/mesg/naukus.msb
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/network/mesg/naukus.msg 11.2.0.4se/network/mesg/naukus.msg

Now you can use Kerberos as you want. You just have to struggle with the usual kerberos issues and bugs 🙂 But more on them here kerberos.

References

Some links related to this topic.

  • Oracle® Database Licensing Information User Manual 12c Release 1 (12.1) Oracle Advanced Security
  • Oracle® Database Licensing Information 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle Advanced Security
  • How To Enable Radius Adapter In Oracle Database 11g Standard Edition [2145731.1]
  • Kerberos Authentication On Standard Edition [2028070.1]
  • Configuring ASO Kerberos Authentication with a Microsoft Windows 2008 R2 Active Directory KDC [1304004.1]

2 thoughts on “Using Kerberos in Oracle Standard Edition

  1. StefanStefan Post author

    Hi I’ve currently do not have a Windows system to verify this. But it is true, the proposed procedure does not work on Windows. On windows you can not relink Oracle. Have you verified if there pre linked files in the Oracle Home?

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