Category Archives: 12cR1

DOAG 2017 Oracle 12c Release 2 Datenbank-Sicherheit in a Nutshell

DOAG Konferenz 2017Below you will find a list of the different demo scripts used during the DOAG training day 2017 Oracle 12c Release 2 Datenbank-Sicherheit in a Nutshell. In general the script do need a SCOTT or a HR demo schema. Some of the scripts may have more requirements eg. Kerberos configuration, Oracle Enterprise User Security etc. The scripts are available free for anyone to use. I do not accept any responsibility for any damage, errors or anything whatsoever caused by running or using these scripts. The scripts have been tested thoroughly but as there are many platforms, Oracle versions and possible configurations, it does not mean that they will work for you when they work for me. Please check the file header for further information on the scripts, references etc before running them especially on production system.

 

Script Description
 01_authentication.sql Show authentication information of the connected user and its USERENV context
 02_privileges.sql Database privileges analysis demo
 03_vpd.sql Virtual Private Database demo with default and column masking.
 04_audit.sql Unified audit demo script
 05_redaction.sql Oracle Data Redaction demo script
 06_tsdp_redact.sql Transparent Sensitive Data Protection and Data Redaction demo
 07_tsdp_audit.sql Transparent Sensitive Data Protection and Unified Audit demo
 aui.sql Script to show authentication information of the connected user and from its USERENV context.
 hip.sql List init.ora parameter including hidden parameters.
 create_password_hash.sql Calculate Oracle DES based password hash from username and password.
 verify_user_password.sql Wrapper script to check if a user has a weak DES based password. Passwords will be displayed.
 verify_user_password_no.sql Wrapper script to check if a user has a weak DES based password. Passwords will not be displayed
 verify_alluser_passwords.sql Wrapper script to check if any user in sys.user$ has a weak DES based password. Passwords will be displayed.
 verify_alluser_passwords_no.sql Wrapper script to check if any user in sys.user$ has a weak DES based password. Passwords will not be displayed.
 verify_passwords.sql Check if user in sys.user$ has a weak DES based password
 verify_password_hash.sql Check if user has a weak password

Oracle CPU / PSU Announcement October 2017

The Oracle open world 2017 is over, the dust just settled down. A perfect time for Oracle to release the October critical patch advisory. With not less than 270 new security vulnerability fixes across the Oracle products it seems to be a rather huge update. From the DB perspective it is nothing unusual. It contains 6 new security fixes for vulnerabilities on Oracle Database 11.2.0.4, 12.1.0.2 and 12.2.0.1. 2 of the vulnerabilities can be used remotely without authentication, but none of the vulnerabilities affect Oracle client installations. Overall the highest CVSS Rating is 8.8 for Oracle Database Server 11.2.0.4 on Windows respectively 7.8 for 12.1.0.2 on Windows and Linux. According to Oracle the following components are affected:

  • Core RDBMS
  • Java VM
  • XML Database
  • RDBMS Security
  • Spatial (Apache Groovy)
  • WLM (Apache Tomcat)

Not all of these components are installed by default. It is therefore recommended that you check your database environment to see if it is necessary to apply this critical patch update. OK, I guess Core RDBMS is part of you database setup 🙂

For Oracle Fusion Middleware the situation looks somehow different. The Critical Patch Update includes not less than 40 fixes for vulnerabilities. Up to 26 vulnerabilities may be remotely exploitable without authentication and are rated with the highest CVSS rating of 9.8.

More details about the patch will follow soon on the Oracle Security Pages.

By the way, Oracle improved the table which lists the affected products and components in there advisory. Oracle Database is not a the top of the table any more.

Oracle CPU / PSU Announcement April 2017

Last night Oracle released there new Critical Patch Update. From the DB perspective it is a rather small patch update. It just includes 2 fixes for security vulnerabilities on Oracle database 11.2.0.4 and 12.1.0.2. None of the vulnerabilities are remote exploitable without authentication but one fix is also for client only installations. The highest CVSS Base Score of vulnerabilities affecting Oracle Database Server 11.2.0.4 on Windows is 7.2 The following components are affected:

  • OJVM
  • SQL*Plus / Local Logon

According to MOS Note 2228898.1 Patch Set Update and Critical Patch Update April 2017 Availability Document, there should also be a OJVM PSU for Oracle 12.2.0.1. But the Patch 25811364 is not yet available.

For Oracle Fusion Middleware the situation looks somehow different. The Critical Patch Update includes not less than 31 fixes for vulnerabilities. Some of the vulnerabilities where some are remote exploitable without authentication and are rated with the highest CVSS rating of 10.0.

More details about the patch will follow soon on the Oracle Security Pages.

Oracle CPU / PSU Announcement January 2017

Oracle has published the first Critical Patch Update in 2017. It’s quite a huge update with not less than 270 new security vulnerability fixes across the Oracle products. For the Oracle Database itself are 5 security fixes available respectively 2 security fixes for the Oracle Database Server and 3 security fixes for Oracle Secure Backup and Oracle Big Data Graph.
Neither of the two vulnerabilities for Oracle Databases are remotely exploitable without authentication. None of these fixes are applicable to client-only installations.

The highest CVSS Base Score of vulnerabilities affecting Oracle Database Server is 9.0. The following components are affected:

  • OJVM
  • RDBMS Security / Local Logon

Over all the PSU for Oracle Database Server itself is relatively small. The tests for the Trivadis CPU-Report will show if there are any issues with this PSU respectively SPU.

It seems that a bunch of Patch’s are not yet available. Oracle list the follow Post Release Patches beside the PSU and SPU for Oracle Database Server 11.2.0.4.

Patch Number Patch Platform Availability
24968615 Database Proactive Bundle Patch 12.1.0.2.170117 HP-UX Itanium (64-Bit) & AIX (64-Bit) Expected: Wednesday 18-Jan-2017
25395111 Oracle Application Testing Suite BP 12.5.0.1 All Platforms Expected: Wednesday 18-Jan-2017
25115951 Microsoft Windows BP 12.1.0.2.170117 Windows 32-Bit and x86-64 Expected: Tuesday 24-Jan-2017
25112498 Oracle JavaVM Component Microsoft Windows Bundle Patch 12.1.0.2.170117 Windows 32-Bit and x86-64 Expected: Tuesday 24-Jan-2017
24918318 Quarterly Full Stack download for Exadata (Jan2017) BP 12.1.0.2 Linux x86-64 and Solaris x86-64 Expected: Thursday 26-Jan-2017
24918333 Quarterly Full Stack download for SuperCluster (Jan2017) BP 12.1.0.2 Solaris SPARC 64-Bit Expected: Thursday 26-Jan-2017

More details about the patch will follow soon on the Oracle Security Pages.

Losing the Oracle Wallet for Enterprise User Security

Having a reliable backup solution for your Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) or Enterprise User Security (EUS) Wallets, is beyond discussion. Nevertheless it can happen that you lose or corrupt the Oracle Wallet. With Transparent Data Encryption (TDE), this is really bad luck, because you can not access your encrypted data. Losing an EUS wallet is on the other side not really an issue. You can remove the database from your EUS LDAP directory (Oracle Unified Directory OUD or Oracle Internet Directory OID) and re-register the database. Although this is the fastest solution, it has some constraints. Un-register and re-register the database, means losing the EUS mappings. Alternatively you can manually create a new empty Oracle Wallet and reset the Database password using dbca.

Ok, first lets create a new empty wallet using mkstore:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_BASE/admin/TDB11A/wallet -create
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Enter password:              
   
Enter password again:

Alternatively you can use orapki to create an empty wallet. orapki is easier to use in scripts and supports auto login local wallets with -auto_login_local:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] orapki wallet create -wallet $ORACLE_BASE/admin/TDB11A/wallet/ -pwd <password> -auto_login
Oracle PKI Tool : Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Create an entry for the Database distinguished names (DN). This step is somehow necessary because dbca -regenerateDBPassword just creates the password entry but no new dn entry:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_BASE/admin/TDB11A/wallet -createEntry ORACLE.SECURITY.DN cn=TDB11A_SITE1,cn=OracleContext,dc=postgasse,dc=org
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Enter wallet password:

Create an entry for the database password:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_BASE/admin/TDB11A/wallet -createEntry ORACLE.SECURITY.PASSWORD manager
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Enter wallet password:

Recreate the database registration password using dbca:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] dbca -silent -configureDatabase -sourceDB TDB11A \
> -sysDBAUserName sys -sysDBAPassword </password><password> \
> -regenerateDBPassword true \
> -dirServiceUserName cn=orcladmin -dirServicePassword </password><password> \
> -walletPassword </password><password>
Preparing to Configure Database
6% complete
13% complete
66% complete
Completing Database Configuration
100% complete
Look at the log file "/u00/app/oracle/cfgtoollogs/dbca/TDB11A_SITE1/TDB11A11.log" for further details.

Verify the new password in the Oracle Wallet:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] mkstore -wrl $ORACLE_BASE/admin/TDB11A/wallet -viewEntry ORACLE.SECURITY.PASSWORD
Oracle Secret Store Tool : Version 11.2.0.4.0 - Production
Copyright (c) 2004, 2013, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Enter wallet password:              
   
ORACLE.SECURITY.PASSWORD = S6usUGSNb#P1

This password can now be used to verify the LDAP Bind with ldapsearch using the database DN and the password:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] ldapsearch -h localhost -p 1389  \
> -D 'cn=TDB11A_SITE1,cn=OracleContext,dc=postgasse,dc=org' -w S6usUGSNb#P1 \
> -b 'cn=OracleDBSecurity,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext,dc=postgasse,dc=org' '(objectclass=*)'
cn=OracleDBSecurity,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext,dc=postgasse,dc=org
orclVersion=102000
objectClass=top
objectClass=orclContainer
objectClass=orclDBSecConfig
objectClass=orclDBSecConfig10i
orclDBVersionCompatibility=90000
cn=OracleDBSecurity
orclDBOIDAuthentication=PASSWORD

...

Or finally check login via SQLPlus as EUS user:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/ [TDB11A] sqh

SQL*Plus: Release 11.2.0.4.0 Production ON Wed Sep 14 10:22:28 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2013, Oracle.  ALL rights reserved.


Connected TO:
Oracle DATABASE 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production
WITH the Partitioning, Oracle Label Security, OLAP, DATA Mining,
Oracle DATABASE Vault AND REAL Application Testing options

SQL> conn soe
Enter password:
Connected.
SQL> @sousrinf
DATABASE Information
--------------------
- DB_NAME       : TDB11A
- DB_DOMAIN     : postgasse.org
- INSTANCE      : 1
- INSTANCE_NAME     : TDB11A
- SERVER_HOST       : urania
-
Authentification Information
----------------------------
- SESSION_USER      : EUS_USER
- PROXY_USER        :
- AUTHENTICATION_METHOD : PASSWORD
- IDENTIFICATION_TYPE   : GLOBAL SHARED
- NETWORK_PROTOCOL  :
- OS_USER       : oracle
- AUTHENTICATED_IDENTITY: SOE
- ENTERPRISE_IDENTITY   : cn=soe,cn=People,dc=postgasse,dc=org
-
Other Information
-----------------
- ISDBA         : FALSE
- CLIENT_INFO       :
- PROGRAM       : sqlplus@urania.postgasse.org (TNS V1-V3)
- MODULE        : SQL*Plus
- IP_ADDRESS        :
- SID           : 410
- SERIAL#       : 925
- SERVER        : DEDICATED
- TERMINAL      : pts/2

PL/SQL PROCEDURE successfully completed.

Depending on your Oracle Directory it may happen, that you run into ORA-28030. This can happen, if you password profile on the directory server has Reset Password on Next Login defined. To work around this issue you have to temporarily disable Reset Password on Next Login in the password profile. This issue is also discussed in the MOS Note 558119.1 ORA-28030 After Regenerating Wallet Password Using dbca.

Oracle CPU / PSU Pre-Release Announcement July 2016

Oracle has published the Pre-Release Announcement for the July 2016 Critical Patch Update. It’s quite a huge update with not less than 276 security vulnerability fixes across the Oracle products. For the Oracle Database itself are 9 security fixes
available. Dies ist wiederum eines der größeren Critical Patch Update for databases. It does contain bug fix for some major security issues. Five of the vulnerabilities are remotely exploitable without authentication. The security bug fixes are for the Oracle Database Server as well for client-only installations. That means three of the security fixes are for client-only installations.

The highest CVSS Base Score of vulnerabilities affecting Oracle Database Server is 9.0. The following components are affected:

  • Application Express
  • Data Pump Import
  • Database Vault
  • DB Sharding
  • JDBC
  • OJVM
  • Portable Clusterware
  • RDBMS Core

We will see all the details next Tuesday when Oracle is officially releasing official Critical Patch Update for July 2016. Next week I’ll have a closer look and do some test installations.

More details about the patch will follow soon on the Oracle Security Pages.

Using Kerberos in Oracle Standard Edition

Since the release of Oracle 12cR1 mid 2013 the network encryption and strong authentication services has been removed from the Oracle Advanced Security Option. Both feature are now available for any licensed editions. Corresponding section in the Oracle Licensing Guide for 11g R2 and 12c R1 has been updated.

Network encryption (native network encryption and SSL/TLS) and strong authentication services (Kerberos, PKI, and RADIUS) are no longer part of Oracle Advanced Security and are available in all licensed editions of all supported releases of the Oracle database.

Oracle Network Encryption does work quite well for Standard or Enterprise Edition even with the Instant Client. But there is no Kerberos support available Oracle 11.2.0.4 Standard Edition or any other 11g SE release. This can be verified on the command line with the command adapters:

oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/ [TDB11B] adapters

Installed Oracle Net transport protocols are:

    IPC
    BEQ
    TCP/IP
    SSL
    RAW
    SDP/IB

Installed Oracle Net naming methods are:

    Local Naming (tnsnames.ora)
    Oracle Directory Naming
    Oracle Host Naming
    Oracle Names Server Naming

Installed Oracle Advanced Security options are:

    RC4 40-bit encryption
    RC4 56-bit encryption
    RC4 128-bit encryption
    RC4 256-bit encryption
    DES40 40-bit encryption
    DES 56-bit encryption
    3DES 112-bit encryption
    3DES 168-bit encryption
    AES 128-bit encryption
    AES 192-bit encryption
    AES 256-bit encryption
    MD5 crypto-checksumming
    SHA-1 crypto-checksumming

There is a MOS Note 2145731.1 which describes how to enable the Radius adapter. The same method can be used to enable Kerberos as well, event if an other MOS Note 2028070.1 specifies that Kerberos is not available in Standard Edition.

Radius and Kerberos adapters is part of the object file nautab.o. In $ORACLE_HOME/lib are two object files. nautab.o and the nautab_ee.o.dbl:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] ls -al $ORACLE_HOME/lib/naut*
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul 15  2013 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4520 Jul  1 18:01 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab.o

To get Kerberos support you just have to replace the nautab.o with nautab_ee.o.dbl…:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] cp $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab.o $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab_se.o.dbl
oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] cp $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl $ORACLE_HOME/lib/nautab.o

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] ls -al $ORACLE_HOME/lib/naut*
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul 15  2013 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_ee.o.dbl
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4864 Jul  1 19:54 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab.o
-rw-r--r--. 1 oracle users 4520 Jul  1 19:54 /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/lib/nautab_se.o.dbl

… and relink the binaries:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] relink all
writing relink log to: /u00/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4se/install/relink.log

As you can see the command adapters now shows Radius and Kerberos adapters:

oracle@urania:~/ [TDB11B] adapters

Installed Oracle Net transport protocols are:

    IPC
    BEQ
    TCP/IP
    SSL
    RAW
    SDP/IB

Installed Oracle Net naming methods are:

    Local Naming (tnsnames.ora)
    Oracle Directory Naming
    Oracle Host Naming
    Oracle Names Server Naming

Installed Oracle Advanced Security options are:

    RC4 40-bit encryption
    RC4 56-bit encryption
    RC4 128-bit encryption
    RC4 256-bit encryption
    DES40 40-bit encryption
    DES 56-bit encryption
    3DES 112-bit encryption
    3DES 168-bit encryption
    AES 128-bit encryption
    AES 192-bit encryption
    AES 256-bit encryption
    MD5 crypto-checksumming
    SHA-1 crypto-checksumming
    Kerberos v5 authentication
    RADIUS authentication

As of now kerberos can be configured and used as usual. If for a reason okinit and oklist are also required, they must be copied from an existing Oracle 11g Enterprise Edition installation. By default they are not part of a Standard Edition. So let’s copy the binaries and the corresponding message files:

] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okinit 11.2.0.4se/bin/okinit
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/oklist 11.2.0.4se/bin/oklist
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okinit 11.2.0.4se/bin/okinit
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/bin/okdstry 11.2.0.4se/bin/okdstry
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/network/mesg/naukus.msb 11.2.0.4se/network/mesg/naukus.msb
oracle@urania:/u00/app/oracle/product/ [TDB11B] cp 11.2.0.4/network/mesg/naukus.msg 11.2.0.4se/network/mesg/naukus.msg

Now you can use Kerberos as you want. You just have to struggle with the usual kerberos issues and bugs 🙂 But more on them here kerberos.

References

Some links related to this topic.

  • Oracle® Database Licensing Information User Manual 12c Release 1 (12.1) Oracle Advanced Security
  • Oracle® Database Licensing Information 11g Release 2 (11.2) Oracle Advanced Security
  • How To Enable Radius Adapter In Oracle Database 11g Standard Edition [2145731.1]
  • Kerberos Authentication On Standard Edition [2028070.1]
  • Configuring ASO Kerberos Authentication with a Microsoft Windows 2008 R2 Active Directory KDC [1304004.1]