Category Archives: Unix

Start OUD Servers on Boot using systemd

Starting Oracle Unified Directory on system boot is essential for production environment. Unfortunately OUD just provides a script to create the init.d script. But newer system in general use systemd initialise and startup. Nevertheless, creating a custom unit file for OUD is simple and straightforward. First, let’s create a regular init.d script with the create-rc-script from oud. The created custom script can be used as template for the systemd unit file.

create-rc-script does allow a couple of parameter to specify the script name, OS user for OUD and the JAVA_HOME. The following example of create-rc-script does show how to create a regular start script for OUD instance oud_ad_proxy.

export OUD_HOME=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy
export JAVA_HOME=/u00/app/oracle/product/jdk1.7.0_141

cd $OUD_HOME/OUD/bin
create-rc-script -f -u oracle -j $JAVA_HOME

This does create the following bornshell script for init.d.

# Copyright (c) 2012, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
# chkconfig: 345 90 30
# description: Oracle Unified Directory startup script

# Set the path to the Oracle Unified Directory instance to manage

# Specify the path to the Java installation to use

# Determine what action should be performed on the server
case "${1}" in
  /bin/su - oracle -- "${INSTALL_ROOT}/bin/start-ds" --quiet
  exit ${?}
  /bin/su - oracle -- "${INSTALL_ROOT}/bin/stop-ds" --quiet
  exit ${?}
  /bin/su - oracle -- "${INSTALL_ROOT}/bin/stop-ds" --restart --quiet
  exit ${?}
  echo "Usage:  $0 { start | stop | restart }"
  exit 1

The same start / stop commands can now be used in the unit file. So let’s create a new custom unit file in /etc/systemd/system. The unit file is named according the old instance.

sudo vi /etc/systemd/system/oud_ad_proxy.service

Add the following content to the new unit file.

Description=OUD AD Proxy Instance oud_ad_proxy

ExecStart=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy/OUD/bin/start-ds --quiet
ExecStop=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy/OUD/bin/stop-ds --quiet
ExecReload=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy/OUD/bin/stop-ds --restart --quiet


As soon as we have the new unit file we have to enable the service.

sudo systemctl enable oud_ad_proxy.service

Start the OUD instance using systemctl.

sudo systemctl start oud_ad_proxy.service

Stop the OUD instance using systemctl.

sudo systemctl stop oud_ad_proxy.service

Display the status of the OUD service.

sudo systemctl status oud_ad_proxy.service

 oud_ad_proxy.service - OUD AD Proxy Instance oud_ad_proxy
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/oud_ad_proxy.service; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Tue 2017-05-16 22:41:09 CEST; 28s ago
  Process: 18300 ExecStop=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy/OUD/bin/stop-ds --quiet (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 18397 ExecStart=/u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_ad_proxy/OUD/bin/start-ds --quiet (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 18477 (java)
   CGroup: /system.slice/oud_ad_proxy.service
           └─18477 /u00/app/oracle/product/jdk1.7.0_141/jre/bin/java -server -Dorg.opends.server.scriptName=start-ds org.opends.server.core.DirectoryServer --configClass org.opends.server.extensions.ConfigFileHandler -...

May 16 22:41:01 euterpe systemd[1]: Starting OUD AD Proxy Instance oud_ad_proxy...
May 16 22:41:09 euterpe systemd[1]: Started OUD AD Proxy Instance oud_ad_proxy.

Some references and links to MOS Notes:

Environment Scripts for OUD

At Trivadis we do have the TVD-BasEnv™ to standardizes and simplifies the handling of environments for Oracle database and application server landscapes. This inspired me to create something similar for Oracle Unified Directory environments. Although current versions of TVD-BasEnv™ already support OUD and OID environment. I’ve had the situation, where I need some small and slimmed down environment scripts for dedicated OUD test servers. TVD-BasEnv™ is rather complex and brings a lot of nice features for Oracle Database environments with ASM, RAC, DataGuard and more stuff which is in general not required on a simple OUD server.

My OUD Base is basically just the script, some configuration files and a bunch of aliases. The directory structure for the OUD binaries, scripts and configuration files is similar to what we use in TVD-BasEnv™ and based on OFA. It is written in bash and tested on my Oracle Linux VM’s and Raspberry Pi’s with Raspbian Jessy. It should also run on any other bash environment. Um, well OUD and Raspberry Pi? Yes I’ll explain this soon in an other blog post.

Setup the Environment

In general I do use a dedicated OS user for my Oracle installations. To keep it simple and clear I name it oracle. The following commands are run on my Raspberry Pi and therefore as OS user pi. Please adjust it accordingly. Create the user and the corresponding OS groups as pi user with sudo.

pi@oud2go:~ $ sudo adduser oracle
Adding user oracle ...
Adding new group oracle (1001) ...
Adding new user oracle (1001) with group oracle ...
Creating home directory /home/oracle ...
Copying files from /etc/skel ...
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Changing the user information for oracle
Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default
    Full Name []: oracle
    Room Number []:
    Work Phone []:
    Home Phone []:
    Other []:
Is the information correct? [Y/n] y
pi@oud2go:~ $ sudo addgroup oinstall
Adding group oinstall (GID 1002) ...
pi@oud2go:~ $ sudo addgroup osdba
Adding group osdba (GID 1003) ...
pi@oud2go:~ $ sudo adduser oracle oinstall
Adding user oracle to group oinstall ...
Adding user oracle to group oinstall
pi@oud2go:~ $ sudo adduser oracle osdba
Adding user oracle to group osdba ...
Adding user oracle to group osdba

Create an ORACLE_BASE directory which is used for OUD and provide access to OS user oracle.

pi@pi2go:~ $ sudo mkdir -p /u00/app/oracle
pi@pi2go:~ $ sudo chown -R oracle:oinstall /u00/app/oracle

My OUD Base is available as Bash Install script with an embedded TAR ( or as plain TAR file ( oudbase_install.tgz). If you use the TAR file a few manuell configuration steps are required.

Install using

This installation is straightforward as you can see in the usage.

2016-10-15_11:41:58  START: Start of (Version 0.1) with
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO : Usage, [-hv] [-b <oracle_base>]
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   [-i <oracle_instance_base>] [-m <oracle_home_base>] [-B <oud_backup_base>]
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -h                          Usage (this message)
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -v                          enable verbose mode
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -b <oracle_base>            ORACLE_BASE Directory. Mandatory argument.
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -i <oracle_instance_base>   Base directory for OUD instances (default $ORACLE_BASE/instances)
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -m <oracle_home_base>       Base directory for OUD binaries (default $ORACLE_BASE/middleware)
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :   -B <oud_backup_base>        Base directory for OUD backups (default $ORACLE_BASE/backup)
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO :
2016-10-15_11:41:58  INFO : Logfile : /u00/app/oracle/local/log/oudbase_install.log
2016-10-15_11:41:58  ERR  : Exit Code 1. Wrong amount of arguments. See usage for correct one.

We will just provide the ORACLE_BASE and use the default values for all other settings.

oracle@pi2go:~ $ ./ -v -b /u00/app/oracle
2016-10-15_11:44:03  START: Start of (Version 0.1) with -v -b /u00/app/oracle
2016-10-15_11:44:03  INFO : processing commandline parameter
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Installing OUD Environment
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create required directories in ORACLE_BASE=/u00/app/oracle
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create Directory /u00/app/oracle/etc
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create Directory /u00/app/oracle/local
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create Directory /u00/app/oracle/backup
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create Directory /u00/app/oracle/middleware
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Create Directory /u00/app/oracle/instances
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Extracting file into /u00/app/oracle/local
2016-10-15_11:44:03  Please manual adjust your .profile to load / source your OUD Environment
2016-10-15_11:44:03  END  : of

You have to change your bash profile to make sure that the environment is loaded. Just add the following lines.

oracle@pi2go:~ $ vi .profile
# Check OUD_BASE and load if necessary
if [ "${OUD_BASE}" = "" ]
    if [ -f "${HOME}/.OUD_BASE" ]
        . "${HOME}/.OUD_BASE"
        echo "ERROR: Could not load ${HOME}/.OUD_BASE"

# define an oudenv alias
alias oud='. ${OUD_BASE}/bin/'

# source oud environment
. ${OUD_BASE}/bin/

During the next logon you have the OUD Base available

Manual installation using oudbase_install.tgz

Ok, it is not really more complex just un-tar the file in a directory. Normally it is $ORACLE_BASE/local. Other directory probably have to be specified in the config file.

oracle@pi2go:~ $ cd /u00/app/oracle/
oracle@pi2go:~ $ mkdir local
oracle@pi2go:~ $ cd local
oracle@pi2go:~ $ tar zxvf oudbase_install.tgz

You also have to change your bash profile as mentioned above.


A few example how to use OUD Base to simplify OUD management.

Change environment to OUD instance oud_pi.

oracle@pi2go:~/ [oud_pi] oud_pi
Source environment for OUD Instance oud_pi
 Instance Name   : oud_pi
 Instance Home   : /u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_pi
 Oracle Home     : /u00/app/oracle/middleware/oud_11.1.2.3
 Instance Status : up
 LDAP Port       : 1389
 LDAPS Port      : 1636
 Admin Port      : 4444
 Replication Port: 8989

List available / running OUD instances using oudup or via alias u.

oracle@pi2go:~/ [oud_pi] oudup
---- ---------- ------ ---- ----------------------------------
OUD  oud_pi     up     4444 /u00/app/oracle/instances/oud_pi

Configuration and Architecture

Config Files

The OUD Base does have the following configuration files.

File Description
.OUD_BASE This is a simple file in the user home directory. It includes the pointer to the OUD Base directory. This file is used to initiate $OUD_BASE.
oudtab oudtab is a simple file which includes all OUD instance and there ports eg. default LDAP port, admin port, SSL port and replication port.
oudenv.conf This is the main configuration file for environment variables and aliases. It is loaded when an environment is set or changed. Location of oudenv.conf is $ETC_BASE.
oud._DEFAULT_.conf This configuration file for custom environment variables. Location of oud._DEFAULT_.conf is $ETC_BASE.
oud._INSTANCE_.conf This configuration file for custom environment variables for a dedicated OUD instance eg. oud_pi Location of oud._oud_pi_.conf is $ETC_BASE.

Directories and its variables

The following directory, environment variables and aliases are defined and used in OUD Base. Most of them are inspired by OFA (Oracle Flexible Architecture) and TVD-BasEnv™.

ENV Variable Alias Path Description
$ORACLE_BASE, $cdob cdob /u00/app/oracle Base directory for the oracle binaries
$OUD_BASE, $cdl cdl $ORACLE_BASE/local OUD Base directory with the scripts, config etc
cdl.bin $ORACLE_BASE/bin Scripts directory in OUD_BASE
$ETC_BASE, $etc etc, cdl.etc $ORACLE_BASE/etc OUD Base configuration directory
$LOG_BASE, $log log, cdl.log $ORACLE_BASE/log OUD Base log directory
$ORACLE_BASE/doc OUD Base documentation directory
$ORACLE_BASE/config Local directory for configuration files, LDIF etc to build an OUD instance
$ORACLE_BASE/certificates Local directory for certificates
$ORACLE_HOME, $cdh cdh $ORACLE_BASE/middleware/oud_11.1.2.3 Oracle Unified Directory binaries eg.
$JAVA_HOME /usr/lib/jvm/jre-1.7.0-oracle- Java used for OUD
$OUD_INSTANCE_BASE, $cdib cdib $ORACLE_BASE/instances Base directory for the instance homes
oud_pi Alias to set environment for OUD instance oud_pi
$OUD_INSTANCE_HOME, $cdih cdih $ORACLE_BASE/instances/oud_pi OUD Instance Home directory for Instance oud_pi
$cdic cdic $OUD_INSTANCE_HOME/OUD/config Config directory for OUD instance oud_pi
$cdil cdil $OUD_INSTANCE_HOME/OUD/logs Log directory for OUD instance oud_pi


Variable besides the ones mentioned above.

Variable Description
$OUD_INSTANCE Name of the current OUD instance
$OUD_INST_LIST List of OUD instances taken from $OUDTAB
$PWD_FILE Password file for the OUD instance eg. ${ETC_BASE}/$OUD_INSTANCE_pwd.txt or ${ETC_BASE}/pwd.txt
$PORT OUD instance port taken from oudtab file
$PORT_ADMIN OUD instance admin port taken from oudtab file
$PORT_REP OUD instance replication port taken from oudtab file
$PORT_SSL OUD instance SSL port taken from oudtab file
$OUDTAB oudtab config file eg. ${ETC_BASE}/oudtab


Alias Description
dsc dsconfig including hostname, $PORT_ADMIN and $PWD_FILE
dsrs dsreplication status
oud_pi OUD Base does generate an alias for each OUD instance based on its name. This allows to easily change the environment from one to an other OUD instance.
oud INSTANCE Use oud INSTANCE name to change the environment to a particular OUD instance
taa tea will do a tail -f on the OUD instance access log
tae tea will do a tail -f on the OUD instance error log
tas tea will do a tail -f on the OUD instance server.out log
tarep tea will do a tail -f on the OUD instance replication log
task task does run a manage-tasks with hostname, port etc parameter
u u runs oudup to display the current OUD Instances
vio vio opens the oudtab file eg. ${ETC_BASE}/oudtab


Although there is the possibility to use property files for OUD I’m still happy, that I have a bunch of aliases to set or change a few directories. Eg. jump to the log directory, view config files etc. Feel free to use the OUD Base as it is on your OUD environments at your own risk. It simplifies a few settings in particular if you have multiple OUD instance on one system. You may change, modify the scripts as you like. I can not guarantee, that the scripts do not have any errors or bugs. Please test before you start using them on a production environment.

Files and References

Below you find a few references related to Raspberry Pi, USB OTG or Oracle Unified Directory: